Serious and organised crime is evolving at a rapid rate. The Government recognises the seriousness of this challenge and is responding, but there are still significant and avoidable shortcomings to its approach, according to the National Audit Office (NAO).
Tackling serious and organised crime is a significant and complex challenge. More than 4,500 organised crime groups operate in the UK in changing and unpredictable ways, often using violence and intimidation. These crimes also know no borders. Indeed, many groups work in large networks spanning multiple countries.
Some of the most harmful crimes, such as modern slavery and human trafficking, are increasing and becoming more complex. There was a 36% increase in identified potential modern slavery and human trafficking victims from 2017 to 2018. Last year, sexual crimes against children increased by 9% compared to the previous year.
In 2017, a Home Office review found that the Government’s 2013 strategy for tackling serious and organised crime did not deal effectively with the evolving threat. The 2013 strategy was meant to tackle serious and organised crime through four ‘P’ strands of work: preventing people becoming involved in organised crime, pursuing criminals, protecting society against these criminals and preparing so as to mitigate these crimes when they do take place.
However, Government has prioritised the ‘pursue’ aspects of the strategy at the expense of the other areas. It estimated that, until recently, 79% of front line spending went towards activities focused on pursuing criminals and only 4% on work to prevent serious and organised crime from happening in the first place.
Creation of new strategy
In 2018, Government created a new strategy designed to improve its response. It set out changes to address some of the issues raised in the Home Office’s review, including doing more work to prevent people committing serious and organised crime and raising public intolerance of it. It’s also based on the four ‘P’ work strands, but the NAO has not seen a well evidenced justification that this is the best approach. The Government has also not worked out how much it will cost to achieve its objectives.
The Government does not yet have the data that it needs to respond effectively. In 2018, it found that it had a weak understanding of the scale of four out of nine types of serious and organised crime. Its insufficient knowledge of international illegal markets has made even it harder for the Government to know how best to respond.
The Government has identified that it also needs to make better use of data, especially to respond to the growing threat of online crime. Work is underway to develop new capabilities to exploit data and tackle illicit finance.
The changeable nature of serious and organised crime, and the time taken for interventions to make a difference, makes measuring performance difficult. The Government mainly uses law enforcement statistics, such as the number of crimes ‘disrupted’, to measure success. It’s reviewing how it can improve its measures, but the Government doesn’t currently assess the amount of effort involved, the impact it had and how successfully it reduced the general threat of these types of crime. This means that the Government doesn’t know if its efforts are working.
Tackling serious and organised crime
In September 2018, there were 37 groups involved in the governance of tackling serious and organised crime and another 59 groups that discussed related topics. Despite some progress in merging and simplifying these groups, governance arrangements are still cluttered and hinder the implementation of the strategy.
Police and Crime Commissioners spend around one-sixth of their funding on tackling serious and organised crime locally. However, funding for it is often uncertain and inefficient, coming from numerous sources without a joined-up approach. The distribution of funding by the Home Office has often been delayed, hindering effective planning and spending. The Government does not yet target spending to achieve the greatest impact.
In 2018-2019, the National Crime Agency (NCA) identified six types of serious and organised crime to prioritise: child sexual exploitation and abuse, modern slavery and human trafficking, organised immigration crime, high-end money laundering, firearms and cyber crime. However, between April and September 2018, fewer of these crimes were disrupted than non-priority crimes, such as drugs crimes.
In May 2019, the definition of national priority threats was broadened, identifying three cross-cutting priority areas covering crimes that exploit the vulnerable, profit from the criminal marketplace and undermine the UK’s economy. However, it remains to be seen if this will help law enforcement to prioritise its response and target the crimes which cause the greatest harm.
The NAO recommends that the Home Office should accelerate its work to determine how it will measure the impact of law enforcement efforts on serious and organised crime. It also needs to improve its support to tackle the underlying causes of serious and organised crime and avoid wasting resources through the duplication of capabilities, such as surveillance teams across different law enforcement bodies.
Response from the NCA
The NAO report on tackling serious and organised crime provides “valuable analysis of the threat facing the UK”, states the NCA, “and underscores the need for a response that is both properly structured and adequately resourced.”
Serious and organised crime presents a chronic threat to the UK and has a corrosive effect on communities and the economy. It affects more UK citizens more frequently than any other national security threat, killing more of our citizens every year than terrorism, war and natural disasters combined.
Advances in technology, continued criminal exploitation of international borders and a greater propensity for violence among many perpetrators mean that serious and organised crime is also increasing in terms of both scale and complexity.
The NCA states: “The NAO report recognises this evolution in the threat across the system. There are substantial overlaps between different crime types, such as drugs, violence and firearms or bribery, corruption and human trafficking. As a result of the NCA’s increased understanding of these overlaps, we have, as a result of working with law enforcement colleagues, developed a range of cross-cutting priorities that enable us to target the criminals causing the most harm.”
The NCA added: “Demand on the NCA is already high and continues to grow. However, there has never been a dedicated funding stream for serious and organised crime, and we welcome the NAO’s recognition that substantial improvements to funding arrangements are needed. These would enable us to build capabilities in areas such as digital forensics, covert surveillance and financial investigations. To deliver maximum impact, it’s vital that the NCA, and indeed the whole system, has the right capabilities to hand at the right time.”